DESCRIPTION: Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful.Lion Tipu: Ok, this actually made me laugh, since I am greek and see some things like these happening
Mara Rubia: I know a lot Italian and Spanish People, and they love my food and lot of them are not that passionated. But sure, they have more energy then german women, because they not brainwashed in feminism and beeing a slave for the economy. They just more proud. But thats all.
Francis Chin: My Grandmother was Greek, and whole my childhood she was telling me about Byzantium and Constantinople and that I've only one mission in this life to find Greek women and get married with her when I grow up :D
Panther105: Eeuu docta, yet?
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Nirmal J: You cant change a flag. because its history. it tells us about our history. and you are right i dont bellive in jesus. but i still believe you are a virgin.
Leather Rebel: I liked his energy. He is cute. I would want to date a Mexican.
Tom Phillips: Chanelle is so beautiful!
Luca Ladeira: I love the Dominican guy lmaoo the second he spoke in the beginning (before they labeled him I knew he was Dominican and then by the way he speaks English ahaha sounds just like my family members. I love my people
Jay Bagdi: Its precisely the contrary, women in western society dont know what they want, thats the problem.
Windy 312: There is uh Je ne sais quoi in the air lol
Jackflag2: Please do a Romanian boy/girl.
Le Douce: Do more Asian countries please!
Jess Sue: Hello Canadians.just a question. I'm from America and will be visiting very soon.so Toronto is more like NYC and Montreal is more like Paris/France.And I mean mini versions of them?I ask cause Toronto has the tall buildings the busy life especially downtown.and Montreal looks like Paris and other parts of Europe.I find this very amazing
Nick Pestana: Seriously, they are the most deceitful women on the planet, purely cold hearted and calculating. Always looking to get more.
Hannah LaRue: Cricket is the only Religion With the visible existence of GOD.
Jan Lee: I can definitely relate to the part where the guy shows his italian cooking skills and then goes for mozzarella sticks XD well done! bravissima lei :D
Mat Tamas: Nigerian girl was so hot (I'm from Congo but I thing the Australian was the sexiest accent
Matias Bonta: I'm american and a russian girl asked me once why does american men like russian women. This was an easy question for me to answer Russian girls are very feminine, you don't get that with most american girls. TAKE NOTE feminists.
Redrose Abd: Neither my whole family.though we have traditions and class.No Ego! :*
Breast Cancer Rates Increasing in Asian-American Women
19 Jan The report estimates there will be 57, new cancer cases and 16, cancer deaths among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders in . Among men, the 3 leading causes of cancer death are lung, liver, and colorectal . Among women, they are lung, breast, and colorectal. The most. 13 Apr To understand the increase in breast cancer incidence, researchers at CPIC studied the cancer trends by age and stage among women from seven Asian- American ethnic groups in California, between and Those ethnicities were Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, South Asians. 31 May Among women over age 50, increases occurred in all Asian American ethnic groups while for women younger than 50 large increases occurred for Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian groups. Although breast cancer incidence rates in Asian American women as a whole were lower than rates for whites.
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor ERprogesterone receptor PRor human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 tumor marker and determine whether the risk of mortality for the aggregate Breast Cancer Among Asian Women category is reflective of the risk in all Asian ethnicities. The study included data forAsian and white women with stage 1 to 4 first primary invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry.
Breast cancer-specific mortality among Asian-American women varies according to their specific Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtype. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by gene expression patterns or differential expression of the tumor markers, estrogen receptor ERprogesterone receptor PRand human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 [ 123 ].
Japanese women and those classified as "other Asians" had a lower risk of breast cancer mortality, all of the other surveyed Asian ethnicities had a survival rate comparable to that of white women. Among the Asian ethnicities, there is marked variability in the demographics and clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Cases identified outside of California, at autopsy, or from death certificates were excluded.
Cases were reported to the Cancer Surveillance Section of the California Department of Public Health from hospitals and other facilities providing care or therapy to cancer patients residing in California [ 13 ]. Since the focus of this study was Asian-Americans, we eliminated the 65, African-American, Hispanic, and American-Indian women along with cases with a missing race field; the remainingAsian and white women were included in the analysis. Breast cancer-specific mortality was defined as death due to breast cancer as documented by the codes ranging from C Deaths due to causes other than breast cancer were censored.
The stage at diagnosis was collected from the patients' medical records [ 14 ]. Cases from later years were staged using an updated manual edition: The CCR requires the collection of tumor marker information from the medical records regarding the status of ER and PR markers for breast cancers diagnosed on or after January 1,and the HER2 marker for breast cancers diagnosed on or after January 1, This is thoroughly discussed in a previous publication [ 4 ].
The ER and PR marker status was recorded according to the pathologist's interpretation of the assays. The ER and PR marker status may also have been determined by examining cytosolic protein ER-negative or PR-negative if there were fewer than 3 or 5 femtomoles per milligram of cytosolic protein, respectively.
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women IHC assay results were scored on a qualitative scale based on staining intensity: The FISH assay results were scored on a quantitative scale: Cases with complete tumor marker data were used in this study, and were categorized into one of the eight distinct subtypes, based on biomarker status of the tumor.
Subtypes were determined with exclusive use of ER, PR, and HER2 markers, rather than converting to a surrogate for the molecular classification of breast cancer. Treatment was documented Breast Cancer Among Asian Women the presence or absence of lumpectomy, mastectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy. Socioeconomic status SES was derived using data from the Breast Cancer Among Asian Women. Census, for cases diagnosed from throughand for cases diagnosed from throughdata from the American Community Survey was used [ 18 ].
A principal component analysis was used to identify quintiles of SES ranging from 1 the lowest to 5 the highest [ 19 ]. This area-based SES index has been used in many studies utilizing cancer registry data [ 4202122 ].
Race was based on information obtained from the medical record, which was derived from patient self-identification, assumptions based on personal appearance, or inferences based on the race of the parents, birthplace, surname, or maiden name. All of these Asian ethnicities were combined to form the aggregate API category. A second set of analyses was conducted using the aggregate API category. The patient and clinicopathologic characteristics were all entered simultaneously.
All p -values were two-sided. This research study involved the analysis of existing data from the CCR without subject identifiers or intervention. Therefore, the study was categorized as exempt from Institutional Review Board oversight. All cases had information on age and year of diagnosis.
The cases with incomplete data were evenly distributed among all ethnicities. HER2 was the variable missing from the largest percentage of cases. Prior toHER2 was not a mandatory variable, and in many instances, it was entered into the CCR in a text field so it was not always retrievable [ 24 ]. The final database for analysis containedcases of Asian and white women with complete data.
Table 2 displays the demographic and tumor characteristics of the cases with complete data that were included in the study. The median follow-up time was 60 months, with a maximum of months. Breast Cancer Among Asian Women most common Asian ethnicities were Filipino White and Japanese women were also similarly distributed among the SES categories.
Women from the Indian Subcontinent and Korea were found to have a higher proportion of the triple negative Korean and Filipino women had the highest percentage of cases with the HER2 overexpressing subtypes [ 325 ]. Filipino and Japanese women had the lowest percentage of the triple negative subtype while Japanese and white women
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women the lowest percentage of the HER2 overexpressing subtype. The percentage of ER-positive cancers was However, among the Asian ethnicities, this percentage varied from The percentage of HER2-positive cancers was Blank spaces in the table indicate that ethnicity was not a statistically significant risk factor for mortality within a subtype.
When all Asian subtypes were combined, Southeast Asian, Japanese, and Filipino women, as well as Breast Cancer Among Asian Women aggregate API category, had a lower risk of mortality when compared with whites Table 3.
The rapid recent growth in the Asian-American population in the United States has sparked considerable interest in breast cancer incidence and mortality [ 26 ]. Breast Cancer Among Asian Women the present investigation, a population-based study ofwomen illustrates the demographic and tumor characteristic variation among the Asian ethnicities. Additionally, this study also demonstrates the wide variation in breast cancer mortality among women of Asian ethnicity.
Japanese women, more than any other Asian ethnicity, are strikingly similar to white women with regard to clinicopathologic features. For example, women from the Indian Subcontinent have been shown to have an increased probability of the triple negative subtype [ 11 ].
However, the current findings suggest that their risk of Breast Cancer Among Asian Women cancer-specific mortality is no worse than that of white women.
However, analysis of the regional Asian ethnicities showed that this is true only for Southeast Asian, Japanese, and Filipino women. For the triple negative subtype, no individual Asian ethnicity was found to have a lower risk of mortality and only Japanese and Filipino women had a lower risk of mortality for the HER2-overexpressing subtype. Our results
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women similar to those of Trinh et al.
However, our results suggest that Japanese women have no survival advantage over whites for the triple negative subtype. Although not a population-based investigation, they also reported that racial disparities vary by tumor subtype. Breast Cancer Among Asian Women acknowledge the limitations of this retrospective, population-based cancer registry investigation. Histologic grading of cancers as well as tests for ER, PR, and HER2 were performed by a wide variety of laboratories without central review.
Incomplete data, especially a lack of classification by ER, PR, and HER2 markers, is common and was described in our previous publications [
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women427 ].
However, in the absence of gene expression profiling, breast cancer subtypes, as expressed by ER, PR, and HER2, are a reasonable substitute for a molecular classification. These tumor markers are well known to clinicians, reliable, inexpensive, easy to interpret, and recorded in cancer registries. The birthplace of women was not always available, so this information was not included. There may be differences in the survival rates of United State versus foreign-born Asian women [ 9 ].
Our measure of SES Breast Cancer Among Asian Women at the neighborhood level rather than the individual level, but similar composite
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women have been shown to be quite useful for epidemiologic research and the impact of neighborhood demographics should not be ignored [ 428 ]. We recognize that our treatment information is quite generic and lacking in chemotherapy specifics.
Lastly, we have no information about any individual's reproductive history, diet, or lifestyle factors that may influence the breast cancer subtype and ultimately affect survival [ 2930 ].
In summary, breast cancer-specific mortality among Asian-American women varies according to their Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtype. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women authors and endorsement by the State of California Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their Contractors and Subcontractors is not intended nor should it be inferred.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Breast Cancer v.
Published online Jun Carol Parise and Vincent Caggiano. Received Feb 17; Accepted May
Breast Cancer Among Asian Women The study included data forAsian and white women with stage 1 to 4 first primary invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry.
Conclusion Breast cancer-specific mortality among Asian-American women varies according to their specific Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtype. Asian Americans, Breast neoplasms, Healthcare disparities, Mortality. Breast cancer-specific mortality Breast cancer-specific mortality was defined as death due to breast cancer as documented by the codes ranging from C Stage The Breast Cancer Among Asian Women at diagnosis was collected from the patients' medical records [ 14 ].
Treatment Treatment was documented as the presence or absence of lumpectomy, mastectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy.
Number of cases with missing data for white and Asian Ethnicities in the California Cancer Registry — Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets.
Breast cancer subtypes as defined by the estrogen receptor ERprogesterone receptor PRand the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 among women with invasive breast cancer in California, Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor ER -negative, progesterone receptor PR -negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States.
Breast cancer subtypes in Asian-Americans differ according to Asian ethnic group. J Immigr Minor Health. Cancer incidence, mortality, and associated risk factors among Asian Americans of Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese ethnicities. CA Cancer J Clin. Disparities in breast cancer survival among Asian women by ethnicity immigrant status: Am J Public Health. Cancer-specific mortality of Asian Americans diagnosed with cancer: J Natl Cancer Inst.
Breast Cancer Among Asian Womencancer-specific mortality among Asian-American women varies Breast Cancer Among Asian Women to their Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtype. Cases with complete tumor marker data were used in this study, and were categorized into one of the eight distinct subtypes, based on biomarker status of the tumor. Rather, the increased risk of breast cancer is linked to risk factors that tend to be more common in lesbians such as never having children or having them later in life, obesity and alcohol use [ ]. Better understand what factors may be contributing to the rapid rise in breast cancer rates in Asian Americans. For the triple negative subtype, no individual Asian ethnicity was found to have a lower risk of mortality and only Japanese and Filipino women had a lower risk of mortality for the HER2-overexpressing subtype. Breast cancer screening Some findings show the rates of screening mammography among lesbians and bisexual women and heterosexual women are similar [ 80 ].
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- Breast Cancer Incidences Increasing in Asian-American Women
- Rates of breast cancer vary among different groups of people.
- The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor ER , progesterone receptor PR , or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the risk of mortality for the aggregate API category is reflective of the risk in all Asian ethnicities.
- Researchers from the Cancer Prevention Institute of California in Fremont reviewed data from to on breast cancer among women in California from seven Asian ethnic groups.
- XRAYS reviews new breast cancer research, provides plain-language summaries, and rates how the media covered the topic.
- The rates vary widely among this population, mostly because of significant differences in exposure to cancer risk factors.
- Study of breast cancer study among Asian women, to identify molecular alterations in tumors and examine associations of molecular changes with risk factors.
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Cancer Type Breast Cancer. Cancer of Unknown Primary. General Psychosocial Aspect Topics. CURE does not provide medical, diagnostic, or treatment advice. In the Asian-American population, however, breast cancer incidence has been increasing steadily, as reported in a recent study done by the Cancer Prevention Institute of California CPIC.
Asian-Americans comprise populations from 30 countries, which all have differing migration patterns, socioeconomic status, health behaviors and culture. Each of these characteristics contributes differences in disease incidence.
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Figure 1.3: Breast cancer incidence rates worldwide
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Do you have to censor yourself?24 Jun Purpose. Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term " Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven. 14 Apr Breast cancer rates among Asian-Americans are steadily rising in contrast to other racial/ethnic groups, according to a study..