DESCRIPTION: To explain the origins of female subordination we need
Male subjectification domination theory that accounts for the control of women's work by men. Published in Male subjectification domination, Women's Work, Men's Property: The Origins of Gender and Classedited by Stephanie Coontz and Peta Henderson, comprises five essays by a group of French and American feminist historians and anthropologists, in search of the sociohistorical basis of gender inequality.
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20 Dec of subjection: we are both acted upon and we act—not in separate acts of domination. and submission, but with submission relying on domination/mastery, and mastery. relying on submission. This does not mean, as the 'naughty boys' show, that submis-. sion means we are engaged in a powerless form of. 13 Oct The editors' introduction, reproduced below, surveys previous efforts — anthropological, sociobiological, psychological, and historical — to exhume the origin of male dominance before outlining the conclusions of their own study. Male dominance is one of the earliest known and most widespread forms of. and theories of subjectification and care of the self (e.g. Foucault (, ). We address each of .. and submit[s] them to certain ends or domination, an objectivizing of the subject' (Foucault, b, p. 18). . such as: (a) the two male fish fight to death, (b) the triumphant male gets the girl fish, and (c) when angered , the.
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Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm. Martha Nussbaumhas identified seven features that are involved in the idea of treating a person as an object:.
The majority of the thinkers discussing objectification have taken it to be a morally problematic phenomenon. This is particularly the case in feminist discussions of pornography.
Anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin, influenced by Immanuel Kant's conception of objectification, have famously argued Male subjectification domination, due to men's Male subjectification domination of pornography, women as a group are reduced to the status of mere tools for men's purposes. Moreover, feminists like Sandra Bartky and Susan Bordo have argued that women are objectified through being excessively preoccupied with their appearance.
Important recent work by feminists has also been devoted to exploring the connection between objectivity and objectification. More recently, some thinkers, such as Martha Nussbaum, have challenged the idea that objectification is a necessarily negative
Male subjectification domination, arguing for the possibility of positive objectification. While treating a person as an object Male subjectification domination one or more of the ways mentioned above is often problematic, Nussbaum argues that objectification can in some contexts take benign or even positive forms, and can constitute a valuable and enjoyable part of our lives.
Such an attempt, she argues, will only distort the phenomenon in questionforthcoming. Immanuel Kant's views on sexual objectification have been particularly influential for contemporary feminist discussions on this topic.
Kant thought that sexuality is extremely problematic when exercised outside the context of monogamous marriage, arguing that in such instances it leads to objectification. Objectification, for Kant, involves the lowering of a person, a being with humanity, to the status of an object.
Humanityfor Kant, is an individual's rational nature and capacity for rational choice. The characteristic feature of humanity
Male subjectification domination an individual's capacity for rationally setting and pursuing her own ends. A being with humanity is capable of deciding what is valuable, and of finding ways to realise and promote this value. Humanity is what is special about human beings. It distinguishes them from animals and inanimate objects.
It is crucial, for Kant, that each person respects humanity in others, as well as humanity in their own person. Humanity must never be treated merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end Kant Kant is worried that when people exercise their sexuality outside the context of monogamous marriage, they treat humanity merely as a means for their sexual purposes.
The loved person loses what is special to her as a human being, her humanity, and is reduced to a thing, a mere sexual instrument. Kant's notion of objectification, therefore, focuses largely on instrumentality: The idea that within sexual relationships people are reduced to objects,
Male subjectification domination they lose their rational nature, is an extreme one. Halwani rightly points out that this reduction to the status Male subjectification domination an object rarely happens in sexual objectification.
Therefore, even though the view that humanity is completely destroyed when people exercise their sexuality is an unappealing one, it is not unreasonable to think that, in some cases, sexual desire and exercise of sexuality can undermine our rationality.
Kant thought that in theory both men and women can be objectified, but he was well aware that in practice women are the most common victims of objectification. This is obvious in Kant's discussions of prostitution and concubinage. of sexuality within these morally problematic sexual contexts leads to the reduction of women prostitutes Male subjectification domination concubines to men's objects of appetite.
Kant defines prostitution as the offer for profit of one's person for another's sexual gratification. A person, Kant holds, cannot allow others to use her body sexually in exchange for money without losing her humanity and becoming an object. He is not entitled to sell a not even one of his teeth.
Kant blames the prostitute for her objectification. He takes her to be responsible for sacrificing her humanity, in offering herself as an object for the satisfaction of the clients' sexual desires. The other relationship in which objectification is, for Kant, clearly present is concubinage. According to Male subjectification domination, concubinage is the non-commodified sexual relationship between a man and more than one woman the concubines.
Kant takes concubinage to be a purely sexual relationship in which all parties aim at the satisfaction of their sexual desires Kant Lectures on Ethics The inequality that is involved in this relationship makes it problematic. Since body and self are for Kant inseparable and together they constitute the person, in surrendering her body her sex exclusively to her male partner, the woman surrenders her whole person to the man, allowing him to possess it.
The man, by contrast, who has more than one sexual partner, does not exclusively surrender himself to the woman, and so he does not allow her to possess his person. The only relationship in which two people can exercise their sexuality without the fear of reducing themselves to objects is monogamous marriage. Monogamy is required to ensure that there is equality and reciprocity in the surrender and ownership of the two spouses' persons.
The spouses exclusively surrender their persons to one another, so neither of them is in danger of losing his or her person and becoming an object. This perfect equality reciprocity between the spouses is described by Kant as follows: Furthermore, this mutual exchange of the two spouses' persons must, for Kant, be legally enforced. He wants Male subjectification domination external, the law, to guarantee this lifelong ownership of the two parties' persons in He argues that this legal obligation to surrender one's person to one's spouses makes marriage different from a monogamous relationship between two unmarried partners.
Like Kant, anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin take inequality to be tightly linked to objectification. In the eyes of both these feminists and Kant, there is the powerful objectifier on the one hand, and on the other hand there exists his powerless victim.
Due to their unequal power, the former objectifies the latter. Kant is concerned with inequality taking place within polygamous relationships. MacKinnon and Dworkin, on the other hand, believe that inequality is a much more widespread and
Male subjectification domination phenomenon. It covers all aspects of our society. MacKinnon and Dworkin Male subjectification domination that we live in a world of gender inequality.
A person's gender is, for MacKinnon, clearly distinguished from
Male subjectification domination person's sex. Gender, being a man or a woman, is socially constructed, whereas sex, being male or female, is biologically defined.
Within our patriarchal societies, men and women have clearly defined roles: Even though MacKinnon does acknowledge that a female sex individual can be an objectifier and a male sex individual can be objectified, she takes it that the former is a man and the latter is a
Male subjectification domination, since in her view a man gender is by definition the objectifier and a woman gender is by definition the objectified.
This situation of gender inequality which troubles our societies and is so tightly linked to the objectification of women is, MacKinnon and Dworkin believe, created and sustained by men's consumption of pornography. In our society, MacKinnon holds, pornography defines women's role as sexual objects available for men's consumption: According to MacKinnon, pornography is responsible for both men's and women's conception of women as objects available for men's consumption.
MacKinnon and Dworkin's understanding of objectification is similar to Kant's. For both of them, like for Kant, objectification involves treating a person, someone with humanity, as an object of merely instrumental worth, and consequently reducing this person to the status of an object for use.
The objectified individual is made into a tool for others' sexual purposes. Objectification, therefore, constitutes a serious harm to a person's humanity.
Dworkin uses Kantian language to describe the phenomenon of sexual objectification: When objectification occurs, a person is depersonalised, so Male subjectification domination no individuality or integrity is available socially or in what is an extremely circumscribed privacy.
Objectification is an injury right at the heart of discrimination: When a person is treated as less than human, as merely an object for another's use, she becomes, according to Dworkin, less than human.
Male subjectification domination this way, her humanity is harmed by being diminished. MacKinnon too describes objectification is similar terms. Insofar as an individual has only instrumental value, she is clearly not regarded as an end in herself.
MacKinnon and Dworkin have argued that, even if women consent to their being used as mere means for men's sexual purposes, this is not sufficient to make such use permissible. For instance, these feminists claim that women in the pornographic industry consent to be used as Male subjectification domination simply out of lack of options available to them within our patriarchal society.
Women's consent, therefore, is not true consent. This does not only hold for women in pornography. For MacKinnon and Dworkin, all women's consent to be sexually used by men cannot be true consent under the existing conditions of gender inequality. They hold that women are not truly blameworthy for their reduction to things of merely instrumental value.
Women's objectification is demanded and inflicted by men in our societies. It is men who want, and also, Dworkin claims, need to use women as objects, and demand them to be object-like Dworkin—3. Kant compares the objectified individual to a lemon, used and discarded afterwards, and elsewhere to a steak consumed by people for the satisfaction of their hunger Kant Lectures on Ethicsand In a similar manner, MacKinnon blames pornography for teaching its consumers that women exist to be used by men.
Male subjectification domination woman, according to MacKinnon, becomes to a cup a thingand as such she is valued only for how she looks and how she can be used MacKinnon Kant took exercise of sexuality to be inherently problematic. For Dworkin and MacKinnon, on the other hand, what is problematic is not sexuality per se, but rather sexuality as constructed through pornography. These feminists believe that objectification is a consequence of gender inequality and it is created and sustained by pornography's existence and consumption.
MacKinnon fears that use can easily be followed by violence and abuse. Since women are things as opposed to human beingsit seems to men that there is nothing problematic with abusing them. The object status of women, then, is the cause of men seeing nothing problematic with violent behaviour towards women.
Moreover, MacKinnon notes, women in pornography are presented
Male subjectification domination enjoying how they are being used and violated by men: Men … create scenes in which women desperately want to be bound, battered, tortured, humiliated, and killed. Or merely taken and used. Pornography, then, teaches its consumers that, not only is it permissible to treat women in these ways, but also that women themselves enjoy being used, violated and abused by men. The idea that pornography causes men to treat women as objects to be used and abused has been defended by a number of feminists.
Alison Assiter argues that what is wrong with pornography is that it reinforces desires on the part of men to treat women as objects as mere means to achieve their purposes Assiter Rae Langton also discusses the possibility of such a causal connection between men's consumption of pornography women's objectification.
MacKinnon, however, holds that the connection between men's use of pornography and women's objectification is not simply a causal one. Men's consumption of pornography, then, is constitutes women's objectification.
Objectification is a notion prime to feminist theory. Arrive this contestant, the fuzzy is at the start on sexy objectification, objectification occurring at home the propagative realm. Martha Nussbaum Tabu, has identified seven features that are involved modish the feeling of treating a identity as an object:. The majority of the thinkers discussing objectification have infatuated it just before be a morally disputable phenomenon.
That is explicitly the if it happens in feminist discussions of pornography. Anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnon then Andrea Dworkin, influenced nearby Immanuel Kant's conception of objectification, induce famously argued that, owing to men's consumption of pornography, women as a group are reduced just before the significance of stark tools in the course of men's plans.
Moreover, feminists like Sandra Bartky then Susan Bordo have argued that women are objectified through individual excessively inattentive with their appearance.
Imperative recent make by feminists has plus been faithful to exploring the bearing between fair-mindedness and objectification.
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Male subjectification dominationwe talk, and to whom, about acting out distress? It was a personal disagreement, a snagging of personal material, and then both people start throwing the whole arsenal of distress at each other. The harmmaintained by Caroline Heldman. Discovering an object's nature enables us to explain the behaviour of that object under normal circumstances. She claims that there is nothing inherently degrading or objectifying with women trying to be sensually pleasing Richards—
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I don't know how to make friends??10 Mar Objectivity is the epistemological stance of which objectification is the social process, of which male dominance is the politics, the acted out social practice. That is, to look at the world objectively is to objectify it” (MacKinnon , 50). Her claim has become the focus of recent feminist investigation. Drawing. 1 GENDER, SUBJECTIFICATION AND AGENCY! INTRODUCTORY REMARKS From negative to impact be regarded as wholly emancipatory. New forms of autonomy and constraint can be seen to be emerging which can no longer be understood through dichotomies of male domination and female subordination..
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