DESCRIPTION: Make stronger welded H-beam connections? In this article we explain need to know welding terms useful for weld preparation for H-beams. Often there is much confusion in beam welding terminology.David Luka: I ship the turk guy with the greek woman
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Choosing the right process for your application
Unreinforced welded hollow section beam and column connections Unreinforced (i) shear yield strength of the tube wall adjacent to a weld (for all connection types);. (ii) punching shear (CJP) groove welds (full- penetration butt welds) are considered to satisfy the overstrength criterion. 3. Tube Welds — Figure 6. The most direct approach to welding tubular sections is illustrated in Figure 6. Fit-up is critical, and fixturing is important to avoid misalignment and concentricity problems. A lower power tacking pass with the electron beam helps to maintain alignment prior to a full penetration pass. The use of tube is extremely popular among engineers and throughout nature. Tube-like structures are naturally occurring: • Bones of animals. • Bamboo. • Stems of . joints. Proper joint design should allow you to avoid complete joint penetration welds. For dynamically loaded trusses, weld sequence is important. Welding.
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Welding is a core activity in the fabrication factory, undertaken by skilled, qualified operatives working to a welding quality management system under the control of a Responsible Welding Coordinator. It is used to prepare joints for connection in the shop and on site, and for the attachment of other fixtures and fittings. Different welding techniques are used for different activities within the fabrication factory.
Essentially, the welding process uses an electric arc to generate heat to melt the parent material in the joint. A separate filler material supplied as a consumable electrode also melts and combines with the parent material to form a molten weld pool. As welding progresses along the joint, the weld pool solidifies fusing the parent and weld metal together. Several passes or runs may be required to fill the joint or to build up the weld to the design size.
Welding is a complex interaction of physical and chemical science. Correct prescription of metallurgical requirements and sound practical application is a prerequisite for successful fusion welds.
The metal arc welding process uses an electric arc to generate heat to melt the parent material in the joint. The weld pool is susceptible to atmospheric contamination and therefore needs protecting during the critical liquid to solid freezing phase.
Protection is achieved either by using a shielding gas, by covering the pool with an inert Beam to tube full penetrations weld or a combination of both actions. Gas shielded processes receive gas from a remote source which is delivered to the welding arc through the gun or torch. The gas surrounds the arc and effectively excludes the atmosphere.
Precise control needed to maintain the gas supply at the appropriate flow rate as too much can produce turbulence and suck in air and can be as detrimental as too little. Some processes use a flux, which melts in the arc to produce a slag covering which, in turn, envelops the weld pool protects it during freezing.
The slag also solidifies and self releases or is easily removed by light chipping. The action of melting the flux also generates a gas shield to assist with protection. The heat from welding causes metallurgical changes in the parent material immediately adjacent to the fusion boundary or fusion line.
This region of change is known as the heat affected zone HAZ. Common terminology used in the weld area is illustrated above right. Welding operations demand proper procedure control delivered by competent welders to ensure that design performance is achieved, to minimize the risk of defective joints caused by poor weld quality and to prevent the formation of crack susceptible microstructures in the HAZ.
Most structural welded connections are carried out in the fabrication factory, and are described as either butt welds or fillet welds. Site welding is also feasible, and guidance on the considerations for site welding is available in GN 7. Butt welds are normally either in-line joints in rolled sectionsor in-line plate joints in webs and flanges, either to accommodate a change of thickness or to make up available material to length.
The positions of these butt welds are allowed for in the designalthough material availability constraints or the erection scheme may require agreement of different or additional welds. Butt-welded Tee joints may be required where there are substantial loading or fatigue considerations in transverse connections. Butt welds are full or partial penetration welds made between bevelled or chamfered materials.
Full penetration butt welds are designed to transmit the full strength of the section. Single-sided butt welds with backing strips, ceramic or permanent steel, are common for joining large plate areas such as steel deck plates and where there are closed box sections, tubesor stiffenerswhich can only be accessed for welding from one side. The design throat thickness determines the depth of penetration required for partial penetration welds.
Note that fatigue considerations may limit the use of partial penetration welds, particularly on bridges. Guidance on weld preparation is available in GN 5. Every effort should be made to avoid butt welding of attachments because of the costs Beam to tube full penetrations weld with preparation, welding time, higher welder skill levels and more stringent and time-consuming testing requirements. In addition, butt welds tend to have larger volumes of deposited weld metal; this increases weld shrinkage effects and results in higher residual stress levels in the joint.
Careful sequencing of welding operations is essential to balance shrinkage and to distribute residual stress, thus minimising distortion. It is occasionally necessary to dress butt welds to a flush finish for fatigue reasons, or to improve drainage on weathering steel girders, or to improve the testing regime.
Dressing flush for aesthetic reasons alone should be avoided because it is difficult to dress the surface to match the adjacent as-rolled surface, and the result is often visually noticeable than the original weld. Also, grinding is an additional health and safety hazard that is best avoided as far as possible.
The dressing of butt welds to a flush finish is usually not required for building steelwork as typically it is not subjected to fatigue. Most welded connections in building and bridgework use fillet welds, usually in a Tee configuration. They typically include end platestiffenerbearing and bracing connections to rolled sections or plate girders, and the web to flange connections on the plate girders themselves. These are relatively simple to prepare, weld and test in normal configurations, joint fit-up being the principal consideration.
In Ssteels full strength is also developed in fillet welds and partial penetration welds with overlying fillets provided that such welds are symmetrical, made with the correct consumables and the sum of the weld throats is equal to the thickness of the element that the welds join.
Weld sizes must be detailed on the project design drawings together with any special fatigue classification requirements.
BS EN  prescribes the rules for the use of symbols to detail welded joints on drawings. Attention is drawn to the fact that traditional UK practice has tended to use leg length to define fillet weld size, but this is not universal: The designer must be careful to ensure that it is clear which dimension is specified and all parties need to be aware of what has been specified.
The important factors for the steelwork contractor to consider when selecting a welding process are the ability to fulfill the design requirements and, from a productivity point of view, the deposition rate that can be achieved and the duty cycle or efficiency of the process.
The efficiency is a ratio of actual welding or arcing time to the overall time a welder or operator is engaged in performing the welding task. The overall time includes setting up equipment, cleaning and checking of the completed weld. The four main welding processes in regular use in UK steelwork manufacturing are described below.
MAG welding with solid wire electrode is the most widely used manually controlled process for factory fabrication work; it is sometimes known as semiautomatic or CO 2 welding. Power is supplied from a rectifier or inverter source along interconnecting cables to the wire feed unit and gun cable; electrical connection to the wire is made in a contact tip at the end of the gun.
Beam to tube full penetrations weld arc is protected by a shielding gas, which is directed to the weld area by a shroud or nozzle surrounding the contact tip.
Shielding gases are normally a mixture of argon, carbon dioxide and possibly oxygen or helium. Good deposition rates and duty cycles can be expected with the process, which can also be mechanised with simple motorised carriages. The gas shield is susceptible to being blown away by draughts, which can cause porosity and possible detrimental metallurgical changes in the weld metal. The process is therefore better suited to factory manufacture, although it is used on site where effective shelters can be provided.
It is also more efficient in the flat and horizontal positions; welds in other positions are deposited with lower voltage and amperage parameters and are more prone to fusion defects. MAG welding with flux cored electrode, process is a variation that utilises the same equipment as MAG welding, except that the consumable wire electrode is in the form of a small diameter tube filled with a flux. The advantage of using these wires is that higher deposition rates can be used, particularly when welding in the vertical position between two vertical faces or the overhead position.
The presence of thin slag assists in overcoming gravity and enables welds to be deposited in position with relatively high current and voltage, thus reducing the possibility of fusion-type defects. Flux additions also influence the
Beam to tube full penetrations weld chemistry and thus enhance the mechanical properties of the joint. This process remains the most versatile of all welding processes but its use in the modern workshop is limited.
Alternating current transformers, DC rectifiers or inverters supply electrical power along a cable to an electrode holder or tongs. A flux coated wire electrode or "stick" is inserted in the holder and a welding arc is established at the tip of the electrode when it is struck against the work
Beam to tube full penetrations weld. The electrode melts at the tip into a molten pool, which fuses with the parent material forming the weld.
The flux also melts, forming a protective slag and generating a gas shield to prevent contamination of the weld pool as it solidifies. Flux additions and the electrode core are used to influence the chemistry and the mechanical properties of the weld. Hydrogen controlled basic coated electrodes are generally used. This is achieved either by using drying ovens and heated quivers to store and handle the product, or by purchasing electrodes in sealed packages specifically designed to maintain low hydrogen levels.
The disadvantages of the process are the relatively Beam to tube full penetrations weld deposition rate and the high levels of waste associated with the unusable end stubs of electrodes. Nevertheless, it remains the main process for site welding and for difficult access areas where bulky equipment is unsuitable. This is probably the most widely used process for welding bridge web-to-flange fillet welds and in-line butt welds in thick plate Beam to tube full penetrations weld make up flange and web lengths.
The process feeds a continuous wire via a contact tip, where it makes electrical contact with the power from the rectifier, into the weld Beam to tube full penetrations weld, where it arcs and forms a molten pool.
The weld pool is submerged by flux fed from a hopper. The flux immediately covering the molten weld pool melts, forming a slag and protecting the weld during solidification; surplus flux is collected and re-cycled. As the weld cools, the slag freezes and peels away, leaving high quality, good profile welds. The process is inherently safer than other
Beam to tube full penetrations weld, as the arc is completely covered during welding, hence the term submerged arc.
Beam to tube full penetrations weld that personal protection requirements are less. High deposition rates are a feature of the process because it is normally mechanised on gantries, tractors or other purpose-built equipment. This maintains control of parameters and provides guidance for accurate placement of welds.
Composite bridges require the welding of shear stud connectors to the top flange of plate or box girders and other locations where steel to concrete composite action is required, e. In buildings, composite beams require the welding of shear stud connectors to members, either directly to the top flange or more commonly through permanent galvanized steel decking on composite floorswhere the top flange of the beam is left unpainted.
The method of stud welding
Beam to tube full penetrations weld known as the drawn-arc process and specialist equipment is required in the form of a heavy-duty rectifier and a purpose-made gun. Studs are loaded into the gun and on making electrical contact with the work, the tipped end arcs and melts. The duration of the arc is timed to establish a molten state between the end of the stud and the parent material.
At the appropriate moment, the gun plunges the stud into the weld pool. A ceramic ferrule surrounds the stud to protect and support the weld pool, stabilise the arc and mould the displaced weld pool to form a weld collar.
The ferrule is chipped off when the weld solidifies. Satisfactory welds typically have a regular, bright and Beam to tube full penetrations weld collar completely surrounding the stud. The drawings detail the structural form, material selection and indicate welded joint connections. The steelwork contractor selects methods of welding each joint configuration that will achieve the performance required.
Strength, fracture toughnessductility and fatigue are the significant metallurgical and mechanical properties that must be considered. The type of joint, the welding position and productivity and resource demands influence the selection of a suitable welding process. The chosen method is presented on a welding procedure specification WPSwhich the information necessary to instruct and guide welders to assure repeatable performance for each joint configuration.
Steelwork contractors may have their own corporate template but all include the essential information to enable the proper instruction to be communicated to the welder. The introduction of this standard states that welding procedure tests made to former national standards and specifications are not invalidated, provided that there is technical equivalence; additional tests may be necessary to achieve this.
Both laser welding and electron beam welding produce extremely high quality joints. Which to choose depends, as always, on the job at hand. In some cases, the question has a simple answer, but often not, and the decision to use process A or process B comes down to a comparison of pros and cons, with cost as the thumb on the scale that tips the balance.
For precision welding requirements, the choice is usually between electron beam welding and laser beam welding. Electron beams and lasers can be focused and aimed with the exceptional accuracy required to weld the smallest of implantable medical devices, and yet also deliver the tremendous amounts of power required to weld large spacecraft parts. Electron beam and laser welding are versatile, powerful, automatable processes. Both can create beautiful welds from a metallurgic and an aesthetic perspective.
Both can be cost-effective. But for all the similarities, electron beam and laser welding are wildly different from each other in terms of underlying physics and functional operation in the real world of the shop floor. It is in these differences that one particular process might have an edge for a particular application. Key to finding the particular characteristics that might make one more suitable than the other is understanding how electron beam welding and laser welding work.
On the surface the two seem the same, but the devil is in the details. Electron beam welding was developed in the late s.
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Pissed off with my housemates demands for money?The use of tube is extremely popular among engineers and throughout nature. Tube-like structures are naturally occurring: • Bones of animals. • Bamboo. • Stems of . joints. Proper joint design should allow you to avoid complete joint penetration welds. For dynamically loaded trusses, weld sequence is important. Welding. 19 May ratio of a strip beam, for which similar relationships may . tubes. Using the yield line pattern of. Fig. 11 and the upper bound theorem of plastic design, the ultimate punch- ing shear stress vp is obtained as: /?(!-/?) o.5*y. .. Tee and cruciform joints with full penetration welds. (except at tubular..
- Welding is a core activity in the fabrication factory, undertaken by skilled, qualified operatives working to a welding quality management system under the control of a Responsible Welding Coordinator.
- Due to the applied moment at the beam/column interface, I am assuming it will need to be a full-pen weld to develop the required flange strength. This is the tube wall thickness to allow for a partial joint penetration weld, or to increase the size of the column to allow an all-around fillet weld of the outrigger. The use of tube is extremely popular among engineers and throughout nature. Tube-like structures are naturally occurring: • Bones of animals. • Bamboo. • Stems of . joints. Proper joint design should allow you to avoid complete joint penetration welds. For dynamically loaded trusses, weld sequence is important. Welding.
- 19 May ratio of a strip beam, for which similar relationships may . tubes. Using the yield line pattern of. Fig. 11 and the upper bound theorem of plastic design, the ultimate punch- ing shear stress vp is obtained as: /?(!-/?) o.5*y. .. Tee and cruciform joints with full penetration welds. (except at tubular.
- Tube Welds — Figure 6. The most direct approach to welding tubular sections is illustrated in Figure 6. Fit-up is critical, and fixturing is important to avoid misalignment and concentricity problems. A lower power tacking pass with the electron beam helps to maintain alignment prior to a full penetration pass.
What is this "a" in the definition of tube connection? If you find your post answered press the Accept as Solution button please. This will help other users to find solutions much faster. Would you be able to weld on the inside part of a tube?
No, I dont mean inside or outside of tube ot RHS beam, i mean left hand side and right hand side of tube. I'm not sure if I understand you correctly. The steel connection module is intended to check the resistance of the connection and in case of welds this is done based on the thickness value you enter in the connection definition dialog.
My understanding is that this part is more for fabrication software such as e. Advance Steel and is not covered in or Robot itself.