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Liquid suspended in air as aerosols and solid particles can also penetrated protective clothing materials, but the discussion of penetration resistance in this chapter relates to For porous fabrics, a liquid of surface tension, ã, will penetrate given sufficient applied pressure, p, when its pores are of diameter, D, according the. Penetration testing shows that electrospun polypropylene webs provide excellent barrier performance against the high surface ten- sion challenge liquid, whereas the laminated fabrics of elec- trospun polypropylene webs exhibited performance of 90–. % for challenge liquids with varying surface tension. Air. 15 Apr Fabric tension penetration aerosol. wish she had more videos and i knew her name.
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A Nature Research Journal. Synergistic interactions between constituents of essential oils have been reported for several areas of research. In the present study, mechanisms that could explain the synergistic action of the two major insecticidal constituents of rosemary oil, 1,8-cineole and camphor against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni were investigated. However, when injected directly into larvae, camphor was more toxic than 1,8-cineole.
GC-MS analyses showed that penetration of topically-applied camphor was significantly enhanced when it was mixed with 1,8-cineole in the natural ratio. A bioassay combining injection and topical application methods confirmed the increased penetration of both compounds when mixed, showing the same bioactivity as seen for higher amounts applied individually.
Because of the similarities in biological function of animal and microbial our finding has potential for application in other fields of study. Ultimately, the amount of toxicant reaching the target site will determine the toxicity of the Fabric tension penetration aerosol. To show enhanced toxicity of a combination of toxicants i. The study of insecticide synergy has mostly focused on biochemical aspects of activation or detoxification 2345whereas enhanced penetration as a possible mechanism of synergy has been relatively less explored.
In the present study, our main question was whether there is increased penetration of a specific combination of rosemary essential oil constituents, and if this could account for their observed synergistic action. In addition, possible mechanisms for enhanced penetration were examined.
The individual contributions of the two most abundant compounds, 1,8-cineole and camphor in rosemary oil and their combined effect to the toxicity of the oil were examined Fig. Insecticidal activities of individual major constituents of rosemary oil and their binary mixture via a topical and b fumigation assay methods. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean of three replicates of 10 larvae each.
The residual unpenetrated and penetrated amounts of 1,8-cineole and camphor in larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni were analyzed by GC-MS.
The recovery rate of camphor was higher than that of 1,8-cineole in all analyses. The of each compound by injection were examined and compared to those from topical administration Table 1.
In a previous report, 1,8-cineole had a lower LD 50 value However, when injected into 5th instar larvae, camphor had a significantly lower LD 50 than 1,8-cineole, with a toxicity ratio of Mortalities resulting from the individual compounds and the of 1,8-cineole and camphor in a mixed application assay using 5th instar larvae of the cabbage looper were examined Fig.
Each application was conducted by A topical administration of
Fabric tension penetration aerosol mixture, B injection of both compounds as a mixture, C and D injection of one and topical application of the other one, or E and F topical application or injection of individual compounds. E and F represent the sum of mortalities of individual topical applications or injections of the two compounds. The contact angles of acetonic solutions of selected compounds and their combinations on a layer of beeswax were measured as well as their surface tensions without the solvent Table 2.
Plant essential oils have been a subject of research by Fabric tension penetration aerosol disciplines because of their wide range of bioactivities including antimicrobial, insecticidal, therapeutic and medicinal effects.
The activity of
Fabric tension penetration aerosol essential oil will sometimes depend on that of its major constituent, but the opposite is also possible, i.
reports of partial and incomplete activity of individual major constituents of essential oils on microorganisms and insects suggest synergy with minor constituents of essential oils 891011 Synergy can be also found between essential oils 13 or terpene compounds 1415even in their interactions with synthetic antimicrobials 16insecticides 5or other natural organic and inorganic materials such as amphotericin B 17Bacillus thuringiensis 18diatomaceous earth 19 and vanillin 20 Synergistic bioactivity was reported when it was mixed with aromadendrene 22chlorhexidine digluconate Fabric tension penetration aerosollimonene 15or other minor constituents of essential oils 8 Likewise, the synergistic effect of camphor with other compounds was also reported 2324and Pavela 25 recently reported the notable boosting effect of camphor with other terpenoid compounds.
In the present study, 1,8-cineole and camphor showed limited toxicity when individually applied, but binary mixtures were synergistic Fabric tension penetration aerosol both topical and fumigant bioassays on the cabbage looper. Despite vigorous efforts to understand the mechanism, we still know little about how synergy can be produced. From the pharmaceutical point of view 2627the synergy mechanism was suggested as 1 a multi-target effect in which compounds target different sites, 2 pharmacokinetic or physicochemical effects on improved solubility or bioavailability, or 3 interactions of agents with resistance mechanisms.
The rapid action of essential oils against some insect species is indicative of a neurotoxic mode of action, with some evidence of interactions with the neuromodulator octopamine and GABA-gated chloride channels Also, several essential oils and monoterpenes have been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase AChE 29Fabric tension penetration aerosol Zhukovskaya 31 found that 1,8-cineole can stimulate the response of pheromone sensitive sensilla of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americanareceptor cells of which are modulated by octopamine.
Studies on AChE showed a species-dependent response as 1,8-cienole had both positive 33 and negative inhibitions
Fabric tension penetration aerosol on insect AChE, but camphor did not show any inhibitory activity 35 Moreover, on bovine erythrocyte AChE the mixture of 1,8-cineole and camphor had an antagonistic effect Although the insecticidal mode of action of the two compounds might differ, they might share the same metabolic fate.
In terms of penetration of compounds, although the chemical compositions and physical constructions of human or mammalian skin and the integument of insects are quite different, they share the same biological functions of protecting the body from xenobiotics and reducing evaporative water loss. The principal barrier to topical drug delivery in humans is the stratum corneum SCa complex
Fabric tension penetration aerosol of lipids embedded in an intercellular matrix of dense dead cells 40 On the other hand, the insect integument can be considered a two-phased structure, with lipophilc epi- and exocuticles containing lipids, lipoprotein and protein
Fabric tension penetration aerosol hydrophilic endocuticle, a chitin-protein complex layers It is generally accepted that hydrocarbon or Fabric tension penetration aerosol terpenes are considered good penetration enhancers of lipophilic drugs in human skin, whereas polar terpenes provide better enhancement of hydrophilic ones In particular, 1,8-cineole was proven to be a promising penetration enhancer of several drugs including curcumin 435-fluorouracil 44mefenamic acid 45and zidovudine 46 either in vivo or in vitro.
The penetration enhancing mechanism of 1,8-cineole was suggested to be achieved by making the SC lipids less ordered i. Insecticide penetration enhancers have been relatively less explored than pharmaceutical ones, but it has been observed that some resistant strains of insects have a thickened cuticle that delay the penetration of insecticides as one resistance mechanism 47 We previously reported the pharmacokinetic fate of thymol with different carriers including 1,8-cineole and rosemary oil, but there were no apparent trends related to the synergies observed In terms of resistance mechanisms, plant essential oils and terpenoid compounds show some promise in addressing current insecticide Fabric tension penetration aerosol problems.
Some essential oils can markedly inhibit resistant strains of gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae 50 and Escherichia coli Other reports show that although essential oils were less potent than conventional insecticides against susceptible cockroaches, the oils showed consistent toxicity to resistant strains as well, indicating their different mode of action A recent report by Tong and Bloomquist 5 showed not only synergistic interactions of essential oils with synthetic pesticides to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegyptibut also inhibitory activities on detoxifying enzymes including cytochrome P monooxygenases and carboxylesterases, which are well-known to be related to the Fabric tension penetration aerosol of resistance to conventional pesticides.
Since most essential oils are complex mixtures, they themselves might also impede the ability of insects or other organisms to evolve resistance.
For example, when pure azadirachtin, the major insecticidal constituent from the Indian neem tree, Azadiracta indicaor a refined neem seed extract at the equivalent amount of azadirachtin were Fabric tension penetration aerosol sprayed on the green peach aphid, Myzus persicaeonly the pure compound-treated line showed 9-fold resistance to the
Fabric tension penetration aerosol after 40 generations Diffused selection of resistance by blending with other constituents instead of a single active ingredient can be a useful strategy which is not limited to botanical insecticides.
Transgenic broccoli having two different Bt toxins showed slowed development of resistance in lepidopteran insects compared to those having a single Bt toxin In the present study, we found a reversed order of toxicity for camphor and 1,8-cineole between injection and topical assays Table 1.
This enhanced insecticidal activity of camphor when the cuticular barrier was bypassed, combined with the observation of its increased penetration when admixed with 1,8-cineole Fig. Fabric tension penetration aerosol is clear when comparing toxicities of mixtures and individual applications Fig. When the mixture of the two compounds was injected, the mortality in 5th instar larvae did not differ from the sum of mortalities of individual injected compounds at Fabric tension penetration aerosol same doses of application B and F, 1,8-cineole: These comparisons lead us to conclude that the synergy between 1,8-cineole and camphor largely results from the increased penetration of the compounds, especially that of camphor in this particular combination.
Mixed applications of calculated doses C and D showed the same toxicities as for the other applications, further confirming the penetration-enhancing effect, and that the injected compounds do not influence penetration Fabric tension penetration aerosol the other compounds that are topically applied.
Thus, this effect only can be produced when compounds were topically applied as a mixture. To understand the penetration-enhancing effect of the mixture, the increased affinity of camphor, the more toxic compound, to the integument of the insect via lowered surface tension might be considered as one possible explanation. The acetonic solution containing 1,8-cineole and camphor in mixture had a relatively lower contact angle on beeswax than a solution containing camphor alone.
Since beeswax has a chemical composition similar to the wax layer of
Fabric tension penetration aerosol insect integument 55we can assume that when camphor is mixed with 1,8-cineole, its spreadability i. Since human skin and insect integument share lipophilic properties, the penetration-enhancing effect of pharmaceutical drugs by 1,8-cineole to mammalian skin supports this finding. One difference might be the role of 1,8-cineole, which in the pharmaceutical area, is usually restricted to that of a penetration enhancer, not an active constituent, but for insecticidal activity, it needs to also be considered as an active principle.
Further, 1,8-cineole may not only interact with the wax layer of insect integument but directly with camphor as well. Another possible hypothesis for increased penetration of camphor by 1,8-cineole might be through increased solubility. When the same amount of camphor was applied on the fabric as a mixture with 1,8-cineole in acetone, no solid crystals were observed, indicating that the compounds can physically interact with each other, increasing the solubility of camphor, by changing it into a liquid phase.
The liquefied camphor will have a higher mobility than the solid phase, and this can also contribute to the increased penetration rate. This increased solubility of camphor and its with increased penetration may also explain the synergistic effect of other combinations of monoterpene compounds. Fabric tension penetration aerosol camphor showed higher toxicity than 1,8-cineole in certain other insects and arthropods such as the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta 56and the food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae 571,8-cineole has long been considered as the active insecticidal constituent of rosemary oil against many arthropod species including the cabbage looper 656 and stored-product insects 58 because of its high concentration in the oil and higher individual bioactivity.
In the present study, however, camphor showed better internal toxicity via injection with enhanced penetration, indicating its more significant contribution to overall toxicity. Although our chromatographic investigations of penetration showed good correspondence with toxicity, a new technique that can trace penetration, and segregate potentially confounding enzymatic reactions would be useful.
Since introduced compounds can be readily detoxified Fabric tension penetration aerosol insects, what we observed might not represent the full amount that but the final result of complex metabolic interactions at the specific time of sampling. To address this problem, it may be necessary to adapt an in vitro membrane model from the pharmaceutical field, although careful attention will be required Fabric tension penetration aerosol select appropriate materials and methods, which may be challenging.
Because of the similarity in function of bio-membranes of many organisms, this finding could have potential to be applied in other areas of research as well. Moreover,
Fabric tension penetration aerosol the compositions of plant essential oils can vary not only with environmental and cultivation conditions but also with methods of extraction 59deeper understanding of biological interactions among constituents will aid in the development of optimal production and uses of botanical insecticides in the field.
Bioassays were conducted via topical administration or fumigation, with the same methods described elsewhere 6. In the fumigant assay, ten larvae and a piece of diet 0.
The filter paper was attached to a bottom of another Petri dish, and they were combined and sealed with Parafilm. Since the diameter of the holes was smaller than that of the larvae, the insects were unable to directly contact the filter paper, but were exposed compounds in the vapor phase see Supplementary Fig.
In a previous report, the LD 95 and LD 50 values of rosemary essential oil in the topical assay were as The equivalent amounts of individual 1,8-cineole Test conditions were the same as those for insect maintenance above, and all tests were repeated three times.
To determine the interactions between the constituents, the actual mortalities were compared to expected mortalities based on the equation 1 where E is expected toxicity and O a and O b are observed toxicities of individual compounds at given doses Differences in penetration through the cuticle between individual compounds 1,8-cineole and camphor and their binary mixture via topical application was monitored by GC-MS.
Equivalent amounts of 1,8-cineole The extracted and rinsed hexane solutions were kept sealed in a freezer overnight and analyzed. Total run time was For quantification of compounds, five concentrations of each compound were used to prepare standard curves see Supplementary Fig.
All analyses were done three times.
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I don't like guys who like slutty looking girls, shallow?Figure 18 The relationship between the surface tension of various challenging liquids and the penetration resistance for any given textile can be plotted as In most cases involving known biohazardous aerosol generation, rigorous engineering controls, such as negativeair-pressure rooms and biosafety cabinets , are. 30 Jul A bioassay combining injection and topical application methods confirmed the increased penetration of both compounds when mixed, showing the same bioactivity as seen for higher amounts applied individually. Lowered surface tension as well as increased solubility of camphor by 1,8-cineole, along with..
Kaufman and Doris N. Filed July 2, , Ser. The present invention concerns a fabric de-Wrinkler. In general, the present invention provides means for removing wrinkles from a fabric or garment by the use of an aerosol spray composition. More particularly, the present invention concerns a non-flammable, non-staining, relatively quick-drying aerosol spray which quickly and effectively removes wrinkles without the need for ironing or pressing.
The desirability and usefulness of a fabric de-wrinkler which would quickly and effectively remove the wrinkles from a fabric or garment without the need for ironing or pressing is apparent. A fabric de-wrinkler employing an aerosol spray composition is a potentially attractive product for several reasons.
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- Liquid suspended in air as aerosols and solid particles can also penetration protective clothing materials, but the discussion of penetration resistance in this For porous fabrics, a liquid of surface tension,, will penetrate given sufficient applied pressure, p, when its pores are of diameter, D, according the relationship known. Figure 18 The relationship between the surface tension of various challenging liquids and the penetration resistance for any given textile can be plotted as In most cases involving known biohazardous aerosol generation, rigorous engineering controls, such as negativeair-pressure rooms and biosafety cabinets , are.
- Liquid suspended in air as aerosols and solid particles can also penetrated protective clothing materials, but the discussion of penetration resistance in this chapter relates to For porous fabrics, a liquid of surface tension, ã, will penetrate given sufficient applied pressure, p, when its pores are of diameter, D, according the.
- 30 Jul A bioassay combining injection and topical application methods confirmed the increased penetration of both compounds when mixed, showing the same bioactivity as seen for higher amounts applied individually. Lowered surface tension as well as increased solubility of camphor by 1,8-cineole, along with.
- Penetration testing shows that electrospun polypropylene webs provide excellent barrier performance against the high surface ten- sion challenge liquid, whereas the laminated fabrics of elec- trospun polypropylene webs exhibited performance of 90–. % for challenge liquids with varying surface tension. Air. Fabric pressure differential/fabric face velocity was found to be a parameter, but not the sole parameter, to quantify particle penetration performance. .. Common wind tunnel aerosol dissemination is made using an array of tubing with ejectors. (usually in the .. Further, tension of the material is known to have an effect on.
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According en route for one theory, wrinkles occur concerning clothing when fibers of the fabrics are bent.
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