DESCRIPTION: The thesis of this article is that psychologists can benefit in assessment and counseling of clients and in research by understanding the religious development of many of their religious clients throughout the life span. Theories of religious development are reviewed in the initial section of the article.Multi Mate: Brasil pisa demais!
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Psychology of Religion
The thesis of this article is that psychologists can benefit in assessment and counseling of clients and in research by understanding the religious development Alter, M. G. (). Religious experience inventory: An empirical study of Christian religious maturity and of its relationship to mental health. Unpublished. John Dilulio examines three types of religious influence in relation to relevant research on urban crime and delinquency. This social trinity of "spiritual Second, the inner-city youths who most needed responsible nonparental adult support and guidance in their lives were the least likely to get it. The simple reason is that. In studying personal religious experiences, James made a distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled religiousness. Individuals predisposed to healthy-mindedness tend to ignore the evil in the world and focus on the positive and the good. James used examples of Walt Whitman and the "mind-cure" religious.
In this chapter, the relation between religion and Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion health and vice versa has been Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping.
Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted.
Religion is as old as mankind. Primitive man had primitive religions and he worshiped the elements of nature like sun, earth, air, cloud, water, etc. The basic characteristics of all religions are similar. There is a firm belief in a higher, unseen controlling power. Religion appears to be a psychological necessity for mankind.
Religion which evolved due to basic psychological need of mankind later metamorphosed. Gradually religious practices developed into dogmas and superstitions. Though most religions continued changing with time many became completely fossilized. From mental health perspective religion provides much -needed guidelines, which can help individuals to devise a course for their lives.
Stresses and strains as well as uncertainties of life can be tolerated more easily by the believers. However, many outmoded rituals and belief might inhibit positive growth and may lead to mental ill-health. We can test whether measures of religious beliefs or behaviors are associated with health outcomes, regardless if we believe in the beliefs under investigation.
India is a country which is associated with spiritual traditions for thousands of years; which has been home of some of the greatest religions of the world like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism. It is a land where spirituality is almost a way of life; where an even illiterate farmer or housewife will surprise one with their philosophical issues of life. With the modern technology development, we noticed change in symptoms in psychiatric patients. Earlier patients used to say that people weer talking about him, but now it is changed and patients now say that the chip is implanted in brain, which is controlling the patient.
Same is true with symptoms with religious connotations. The definitions of religiosity and spirituality have been a perennial source of controversy. These are not interchangeable words. According to Betson and Ventisas early asthe psychologist James Leuba detected 48 distinct definitions of religion. We will adopt the definitions given by Koenig et al.
Is the personal quest for understanding answers to the ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and about relationship with the sacred or transcendent, which may or may not lead to or arise from the development of religious rituals and the formation of a community?
Spirituality is expressed through art, poetry and myth, as well as religious practice. Both religion and spirituality typically emphasize the depth of meaning and purpose in life. One does not, of course, have to be religious for life to be deeply meaningful, as atheists will avow. However, although some atheists might not consider themselves spiritual, many do.
Spirituality is thus a more inclusive concept than religion. It must be clarified at the outset that there a wide diversity of cultures and philosophical systems in India and a historical mix with western modes of thinking in recent years has made it difficult to identify a uniform Indian paradigm of mind and mental illness.
There are obvious differences between Jewish-Christian-Islamic religion and religious traditions as evolved in Indian subcontinent. In Indian languages, there is no equivalent term to convey the meaning of the word Religion. The nearest term is dharma is not an equivalent of religion. It is a mixture of cosmic order, sacred law, and religious duty.
In India's philosophy and mythology play an important role in religious teaching. In India, particularly in Hindu religion God also has a different meaning. In other religion God is the creator and he resides outside the world he has created.
However in Hinduism, God lies within you and within everyone and not outside. From the whole emerges the whole. The whole is taken from the whole but the whole remains. The creation of the universe does not in any manner affect the integrity of Brahman.
The idea that religion and psychiatry have always been in conflict is still very prevalent. Today, most people believe that in the medieval ages most mental disorders were considered as witchcraft or demonic possession. After all, one of the foundational myths of psychiatry is that brave and enlightened psychiatrists liberated mankind from this religious superstition.
Many well-known psychiatric textbooks have taught that the Middle Ages were the Dark Ages, when the Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion was on insanity as demonology, when people did not consider natural causes to mental disorders and the insane were tortured or burned at Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion stake.
However, that point of view is far away from the truth. Natural causes to mental disorders were proposed and largely accepted Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion that period and the emphasis on demonology and witch-hunting occurred after the middle Ages.
However, Vandermeersch states that medical psychiatry's birth at the time of Pinel did not conflict
Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion religion. The alleged opposition between enlightened medicine and obscurantist theology as well as between the humanitarian physician and the cruel churchman are myths. From mental-health perspective religion provides much needed guidelines, which can help individuals to devise a course for their lives.
Excessive sexual activity is decried upon by most religions and therefore, it may arouse a strong sense of guilt or anxiety in many. Similarly, any violation of religious rituals, whether willingly or unwillingly can generate considerable anxiety. If religion has to fulfill the need for which it was generated it has to keep pace with modern times and technology. Only then it will serve the function of providing relief and succour to mankind.
One factor that may have contributed to this negative attitude is what Lukoff et al. Psychiatrists and psychologists tend to be less religious than the general Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion, and do not receive adequate training to deal with religious questions in clinical practice. Although psychiatric patients many times use religious Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion in a healthy way, they also may express a depressive, psychotic or anxious point of view of their religions.
Those perspectives, farther than not reflecting in a fairly way the religious experiences of the general population, were seen as confirmations of the pathological nature of religiosity. Only in the last two decades have rigorous scientific research been done and published in mainstream medical and psychological journals.
Levin and Harold G. They have conducted a series of studies looking at the relationship between religious involvement and mental health in mature adults, either living in the community or hospitalized with medical illness.
Since then, many other researchers have produced a large body of research that has usually, but not always, shown a positive association between religious involvement and mental health. Currently, there is a trend favoring a rapprochement of religion and psychiatry to help mental health professionals develop skills to understand better the religious factors influencing health and to provide a more compassionate and comprehensive mental health care.
One line definitions do not justice to complex cultural concepts. There are many references in Indian philosophical texts as to what as an ideal person. Most often, quoted text is from Srimad Bhagavad Gita describing the balanced person as one who has a controlled mind, emotions and senses.
For understanding the concept of mental-health, perhaps more important than any one quote is the broad Hindu view of life as summed up in the well-known four ends or broad aims of life Purushartha. These are Dharma, Kama, Artha and Moksha. Dharma is righteousness, virtue or religious duty. Kama refers to fulfilment of our biological needs or sensual pleasures.
Artha refers to fulfilment of our social needs including material gains, acquisition of wealth and social recognition. Moksha means liberation from worldly bondage and union with ultimate reality. These four aims highlight harmony of different dimensions in life: Kama as the biological dimension, Artha as social dimension and Moksha as spiritual dimension.
Dharma is the Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion axis around which life rotates. If one pursues Kama and Artha without Dharma the long term result is suffering for the individual and others around them.
A large part of the research involving religion and health did not have religion as the focus of the study. Because of that, frequently, the measurement of religiosity involved only a single question, often simply religious denomination. However, the religious affiliation tells us little about what is religiosity and how important it is in someone's life. On account of that, studies using only a subject's religious affiliation have provided, with few exceptions, many inconsistent and contradictory findings.
The strongest and most consistent results have not been found between different religious denominations, but by comparing different degrees of religious involvement from a non-religious to a deeply religious person. Other questions are non-organizational religiosity time spent in private religious activities such as prayer, meditation, and reading religious texts Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion subjective religiosity the importance of the religion in someone's life.
However, caution is necessary in interpreting the relationship between private religious practices and health in cross-sectional studies. People may pray more while they are sick or under stressful situations.
Turning to religion when sick may
Faith guide healthy mature psychological religion in a spurious positive association between religiousness and poor health. Conversely, a poor health status could decrease the capacity to attend a religious meeting, in that way creating another bias on the association between religiousness and health.
Finally, a very important dimension of religiosity is religious commitmentwhich reflects the influence that religious beliefs have on a person's decisions and lifestyle. Persons with this orientation are disposed to use religion for their own ends.
Many find religion useful in a variety of ways — to provide security and solace, sociability and distraction, status and self-justification. The embraced creed is lightly held or else selectively shaped to fit more primary needs. Persons with this orientation find their motive in religion. Other needs, strong as they may be, are regarded as of less ultimate significance, and they are, so far as possible, brought in harmony with the religious beliefs and prescriptions.
Having embraced a creed the individual endeavors to internalize it and follow it fully. Usually, the intrinsic orientation is associated with healthier personality and mental status, while the extrinsic orientation is associated with the opposite.
Do you have fights with your close same sex friends?John Dilulio examines three types of religious influence in relation to relevant research on urban crime and delinquency. This social trinity of "spiritual Second, the inner-city youths who most needed responsible nonparental adult support and guidance in their lives were the least likely to get it. The simple reason is that. Joyce, Gerald P., "Maturity of Faith in Relation to Psychological Maturity and Liberal-Conservative Religious Orientation" (). .. healthy and troubled patients, and upon research and theoretical formulations of many writers in humanistic, existential and gestalt psychology. There is agreement that the items are related to..
In the field of this chapter, the narration between religion and nutty health and vice versa has been described. Commence primitive times different religions have different beliefs as a consequence systems of worshipping. Occasionally religion with their creed system has implications next to mental health and sickness.
We described how Hindu system of beliefs with rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains.
The relationship between divers religion and symptomatology is described. The impact along with outcome of religion without a break mental health have obsolescent highlighted.
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How, if at all, does creed affect health and social welfare? Under what, if any, conditions does religion help to convalesce the lives of disadvantaged built-up children and families, and how, if at all, can we foster those conditions? Is around any significant body of display to suggest that religion reduces crime and delinquency among low-income, inner-city youth? In , at what time I began asking these questions in earnest, there was minor reliable empirical research with which to address them.
Today, no matter how, we have many first-rate numerical and ethnographic studies that present some preliminary answers. Though far off from definitive, the evidence en route for date suggests that religion be able to improve individual well-being and modernize specific social problems.
But come again? types of religious influences are most beneficial to the identical and society?
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Methodological Premises - II. Religiosity as a Multidimensional Process - V. Religiosity and its Motivational System - VI. Psychology of religion takes into consideration behaviours and attitudes a person or a group define as religious, because they are connected with faith in a supernatural being or with a view of life which does not exclude the sacred dimension and seeks to understand its motivational factors. Remaining faithful to its specific and qualified viewpoint, it stops one from sliding onto an interpretation level that would turn it into a pseudo-science, exclusively used by spirituality, while forcing it to lose its own total and indispensable autonomy.
The deep empirical imprint of psychology as a science enables it to study the psychic life of a person, highlighting its latent meanings and intentions as part of their religious experience, although the subjects themselves are not clearly aware of it.
Since, then, in the realm of psychology nothing is reduced to linear causality, the study of psychic life experience takes into consideration a dual movement involving the weight of personal choices, on the one hand, and the influence of religious symbolism, on the other.
Psychology, on the other hand, acknowledges that religiosity, strongly marked by historical and cultural features and enlivened by the wealth of inherited traditions, results in religious symbols strongly branding psychic experience.
If religiosity is experienced in an environment marked by democratic relations, for example, it will turn out to differ from that experienced in dictatorial structures. Likewise, within the same socio-political system, religiosity itself will be merely external, if it is bound up with a ritualistic notion strongly underlining the need for consensus, or internal, if it leads to constantly improving human beings by promoting their relationship-building with the transcendental dimension.
Looking from what can be experienced and lived out at a psychic level stems the fundamental principle that psychology of religion is not qualified to say anything about the reality or the features of supernatural life, to which a religious behaviour refers.
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Religious Faith Across the Life Span
Joyce, Gerald P., "Maturity of Faith in Relation to Psychological Maturity and Liberal-Conservative Religious Orientation" (). .. healthy and troubled patients, and upon research and theoretical formulations of many writers in humanistic, existential and gestalt psychology. There is agreement that the items are related to. In studying personal religious experiences, James made a distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled religiousness. Individuals predisposed to healthy-mindedness tend to ignore the evil in the world and focus on the positive and the good. James used examples of Walt Whitman and the "mind-cure" religious. The thesis of this article is that psychologists can benefit in assessment and counseling of clients and in research by understanding the religious development Alter, M. G. (). Religious experience inventory: An empirical study of Christian religious maturity and of its relationship to mental health. Unpublished.